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Anan zaka fahimci ma'anar kalmomin da aka fi amfani da su a duniyar laser.

-Marubutan Laser

Poan ƙaramin Laser ƙaramin na'urar ne wanda ke fitar da hasken Laser, galibi kore ko ja, wanda galibi ana amfani dashi don nuna maki ko takamaiman wurin. Yawancin lokaci, mai nuna Laser kayan aiki ne mai mahimmanci don kyakkyawan gabatarwa na aikin, samfurin wasu ma'amala akan taswira, da dai sauransu.

Manunin Laser yana da ɗan ƙaramin maɓalli wanda ke kunna hasken laser da za'ayi amfani dashi don amfani da shi don nuna takamaiman ma'ana akan saman da aka tsara gabatarwar. Wannan nau'in alamun yana zuwa don maye gurbin tsohuwar "sandar" mai ritaya da aka yi amfani da ita don dalilai iri ɗaya; lein Laser ya zama aikin gyara kayan aikin.

Kalmar laser ta fito ne daga Ingilishi kuma ita ce asalin: "Haskakawa ta Haskakawar Haskakawar Radiation", kuma wannan na fassara zuwa Mutanen Espanya a matsayin "fadada haske ta hanyar motsawar iska."

Musamman fasalin Laser, wanda ke ba da damar amfani da shi azaman juzu'i don gabatarwa ana kiransa jagora. Wannan fasalin shine katako na Laser baya watsa kamar yadda hasken wuta na yau da kullun yake. Daga cikin sauran halayen Laser shine hasken rana mai hadewa, shine cewa, lokacin da wutar lantarki take gudana acikin ta, ana fitar da hasken ne ta hanyar infrared, wanda yake baiwa lasir damar iya ganin ido.

Amma game da alamun laser da aka fi amfani dasu sune: nishaɗi, ilimin taurari, daukar hoto, sanya hannu, gwaje-gwaje, gabatarwa, karatu, kallon kallo, acupuncture, kunne, dutse, farauta, hutu...

Amma ba a amfani da laser kawai azaman fasali ba, saboda halayensa, ana amfani da laser a fannoni daban-daban. Ana iya samunsa a cikin 'yan wasan CD, tsarin fiber optic, kazalika a fannin kiwon lafiya da masana'antu. Misali, a fannin kiwon lafiya, zaku iya gano cewa ana amfani da laser wajen yankan da kerar nama, saboda yana bada damar wadannan hanyoyin guda biyu a mataki daya kuma ba tare da haifar da wata illa ba. Hakanan an yi amfani dashi a tiyata na ido, hakowa na kashi da dakin gwaje-gwaje.

-mW (Milliwatt - milliwatt)

Turanci na milliwatt ko milliwatt (mW) alama ce ta ɓangaren wutar lantarki ta Systemungiyar Tsarin Internationalasashen Duniya da aka fi sani da Watt ko Watt kuma alama ce W.

Outarfin fitarwa na kayan lantarki yana bayyana ne a cikin watts, ko kuma ƙasa da ƙarfi kuma yawancin alamun Laser, sunyi amfani da ƙaƙƙarfan ikon mil ɗin na mil yana daidai da dubu ɗaya na watt.

Wato, ƙarfin lantarki 200mW na laser daidai yake da 0.2W. Kada ku rikita mW (milliwatts) tare da MW (megawatts).

Wataya daga cikin watt tana daidai da joule 1 na sakan biyu (1 J / s) kuma ɗayan raunan da aka samo. Da aka ambata a cikin raka'a amfani da wutar lantarki, ana samar da wutar lantarki watt ɗaya ta yuwuwar bambanci na 1 V da wutan lantarki na 1 ampere (1 volt-ampere).

Kalmar "watt" ita ce Castilianization watt, wani rukunin mai suna bayan James Watt saboda irin gudummawar da yake bayarwa ga ci gaban injin tururi, kuma Babban Taro na biyu na Kungiyar Masarautar Burtaniya ya samar da cigaban Kimiyya a shekarar 1889 da kuma Babban Taro na Goma sha ɗaya. akan nauyi da kuma matakan a shekarar 1960 kuma aka gina bangaren wutan lantarki a cikin Tsarin Kasa da Kasa.

A cikin duniyar ainihin mN laser pointer pointer ana canza su sau da yawa a cikin alamun shaidar su, suna sanya adadi mafi girma don ficewa daga gasar a farashin ciniki. A Zai kasance da wahala a kirga ko auna ainihin fitowar Laser na mai amfani ga mai amfani na yau da kullun, yana da matukar muhimmanci a ga kawai shafuka na musamman waɗanda ke ba da tabbacin cewa ikon da aka bayar na gaskiya ne. Hakanan yana da sauƙi don bambance na ainihi daga ƙarar gwajin mW wutar ƙonawa da kewayon laser ta hanyar kwatanta sakamako tare da tebur da aka shirya ta hanyar rukunin shafuka na musamman (sakamako-sakamako-sakamako). A cikin TorLaser suna da tebur da yawa kwatanta da kuma shiryarwa mW ainihin bambancin karya.

-Class

UNE EN 60825-1 / A2-2002, samfuran laser, yin la'akari da raƙumin haɓakawa, abubuwan da ke cikin makamashi da kuma halayen fitilu na katako na Laser ana rarrabasu cikin waɗannan rukunan:

· Class 1: Kayayyakin Laser suna da aminci a ƙarƙashin duk yanayin halayen da ake iya amfani da su, gami da amfani da kayan aikin fitarwa a hangen nesa kai tsaye.

· Class 1M: Lasers waɗanda ke fitowa a cikin kewayon raƙuman ruwa (lambda) tsakanin 302.5 zuwa 4000 nm suna da haɗari a cikin yanayin amfani da hankali, amma zai iya zama haɗari idan ana amfani da kayan aikin gani don kallon kai tsaye.

· Class 2: (Powerarfi tsakanin 1 zuwa 5 mW). Lasers suna fitar da fitowar hasken rana a cikin kewayon zazzabi tsakanin 400 zuwa 700 nm. Ana samun kariya ta ido kamar yadda aka saba da amsawar ciki har da farfadowar ido. Wannan halayen na iya bayar da isasshen kariya yayin da ake amfani da kayan aikin ingarma.

· Class 2M: Lasers suna fitar da hasken dake fitowa (400 zuwa 700 nm). Ana samun kariya ta ido da kullun ta hanyar maida martani da ya hada da farfadowa na fatar ido, amma hangen nesa na iya zama haɗari idan ana amfani da kayan alatu.

· Class 3R: Lasers waɗanda ke fitowa tsakanin 302.5 zuwa 106 nm, kallon kai tsaye na katako yana da haɗari amma haɗarinsu ya yi ƙasa da na masu layin Class 3B. Suna buƙatar ƙarancin masana'antu da matakan sarrafawa wanda ya dace ga masu amfani da Class 3B masu amfani. Iyakar rashi mai lalacewa ya zama kasa da sau biyar LEA Class 5 a cikin nisan 2-400 nm, kuma kasa da sau 700 LEA Class 5 na sauran raunanan ruwa.

· Class 3B: (Ikon 5 zuwa 500mW) .Lankunnoni waɗanda hangen nesan sa na katako koyaushe yana da haɗari (misali. A Tsarin Rashin Tsarin Kwayoyin Hankali) .Shin hangen nesa ya haifar da matsala ba matsala.

· Class 4: (Kasa da 500mW Power). Za a kuma iya samarda manyan layuka masu haifar da haɗari. Suna iya haifar da lahani ga fata kuma zasu iya zama haɗarin wuta. Amfani da su yana buƙatar matsanancin hankali.

-nm (Nanometer - Wave)

'Tsirara' yanki ne na tsawon yayi daidai da biliyan biliyan daya. "Nano" na nufin biliyan daya.
Ana amfani dashi don auna gwargwadon huhun ultraviolet radiation, radiation infrared da light. Alamar nm.

Tsawon kalaman ruwa lokaci ne da nisansa daga bugun jini zuwa bugun jini. A yadda aka saba sun yi la’akari da maki biyu a jere da suke da sashi ɗaya: 2 m, 2 m, mararraba 2 rabe. Misali, nisan da ya yi amfani da hasken shudi (wanda yake tafiya a 299,792,458 m / s) a tsakanin tsakanin 2 m madaidaicin matsakaicin wutar lantarki ko filin maganaɗisu lokacinsa, shine kewayon haske mai shuɗi. Hasken ja yana tafiya da sauri guda, amma filin lantarki yana ƙaruwa kuma yana raguwa da sannu a hankali fiye da hasken shudi. Sabili da haka, hasken jan yana da frequencyarancin mitar da ke sa igiyar saɗaɗɗisu (nesa tsakanin wuraren raƙuman ruwa) mafi girma. Don haka kalaman haske mai launin ja ta fi girma nesa da zafinwar shuɗi.

Laser radiation ne na wutar lantarki da yake fitarwa ta samfurin laser a cikin kewayon fadada tsakanin nm 180 zuwa 1 mm, wanda aka haskaka sakamakon karuwar hasken.

Matsakaicin raƙuman ruwa tsakanin nm 180 zuwa 1 mm, ya hada da radadin ultraviolet, zazzage da ake iya gani da kuma radadin wutar lantarki a jerin masu zuwa:

· 180-400 nm - UV
· 400-700 nm - bayyane
· 700 nm - 1 mm - infrared

Alamar Laser a bayyane saboda aikinta koyaushe yana gudana a cikin kewayon bayyane mafi yawan katako, kodayake ya dogara da ingancin laser wannan ɓangaren zai zama mafi girma ko ƙananan.

An yanke launin launi na Laser ta hanyar raƙumin haske da aka kunna ta diode na layin Laser.

Idon dan Adam ya fi daukar hankali game da wasu kalamai masu zafi fiye da wasu, wanda shine dalilin da yasa laser kore yake haskakawa. A hoto na gaba za mu ga yadda abin yake shafar:

-Wavelength Mafi yawan abubuwan alamun laser na yau da kullun:

·405nm: Ganyen ja a kusa da wanda ba a iya gani ga idon ɗan adam.

·445nm: Blue, wanda ake iya gani a fili musamman a kusa.

·532nm: Green, mai haske sosai, mai ganuwa kuma abin lura ga ido

·650nm: Launin ja, mafi wahalar gani fiye da waɗansu.

· 880nm: Infrared Launi (IR), kusan ba a gan shi ga idon ɗan adam ba.


-Filin IR

Yawancin alamun shudi na Laser masu launin shuɗi sunyi amfani da katako mai amfani da diode don ƙirƙirar launi na Laser kuma ba su da tacewar IR. Saboda wannan, ana iya haɗu da fitowar hasken lasers tare da hasken infrared.
Haske mai hanayar gani ba zai yiwu ga idanun mutum ba saboda yanayin karfin sa (808nm).

Matsalar da hasken infrared ya haɗu da ainihin launuka sune:

1. Yana kwance ikon arya. Idan ka sayi na'urar laser 200mW 532nm (kore) da 150mW na waɗancan 200 hasken fitila ne (808nm), to lallai kana da laser ɗin da gaske haske kamar 50mW tsark 532nm ne.

2. Saboda IR ba a ganuwa ba, duk wani rayukan revotado Kuna iya lalata idanunku saboda baza ku iya ganin tafarkin hasken wutar lantarki ba, yana haifar da haɗari sosai da wannan nau'in Laser. Bugu da ƙari ko da yake amfani da goggles ga idanu, goggles kawai yana kare rayayyen motsi na Laser, ko dai 532nm idan ya kasance kore, ko 650nm a cikin ja misali, don kada hasken ganuwa mara ƙarancin cuta ya faru ba tare da matsala ba ta hanyar tabarau ba tare da matsala ba. .

Kyakkyawan ingancin laser kamar yadda dukkanin TorLaser kore yana da sashi na ciki wanda ake kira IR filter, wanda ke da alhakin tace wutar fitarwa an cire duk wani yanki na hasken infrared da kuma tabbatar da cewa fitowar wutar lantarki kashi 100% tana fitowa ne a cikin zazzage mai bayyane.
Wannan shine ɗayan manyan bambance-bambancen da ke haifar da alamar TorLaser daidai yake ko ma da ƙarfin ƙasa da yawa, mafi haske da iko fiye da sauran ingancin dubious.

Kamar yadda zaku gani ba kawai bambanci bane a sakamakon, har ma da tsaro.

Lura: lasarfin laser na mita zai iya kawai auna ƙarfin in fitarwa na mW cewa laser baya iya nuna yadda ƙarfin wutar yake fitar da su a raƙuman ruwa daban-daban, don haka ba zai zama tabbataccen gwajin ba don tabbatar da cewa da gaske shine ƙarfin laser a cewar Zuwa faɗuwar ta. Don wannan bayanan yana buƙatar haske mai haske, haske da kewayon sa.

-Kaleidoscope

Kalaidoscope wani bututu ne mai dauke da madubi guda uku wanda ke samar da tsinkayen murhun triangular tare da gefensa na fuskance ciki, ƙarshensa akwai mayaƙa guda biyu waɗanda a cikinsu akwai abubuwa da launuka da launuka daban-daban, waɗanda hotunansu suka yawaita daidai yayin da kuke juya bututu. yayin da suke kallon karshen kishiyar. Wadannan madubai za'a iya shirya su a kusurwoyi mabambanta. An fito da 45th na kowane hotunan kwafi takwas. Na 60 ya lura guda shida da 90 guda hudu.

A cikin alamomin laser an daidaita shi zuwa ƙananan kawunan canzawa waɗanda ke ba da damar babban tasirin haske, wanda ke faɗaɗa abubuwa da yawa na damar yin amfani da alama, yana mai da kyau don ƙirƙirar abubuwan gani.